Over the last decade, cyber threats have continued to advance in both depth and breadth with the expansion of exploitation, disruption, and destruction activities. In warfighting, as demonstrated in conflicts in Crimea, Syria, and Iraq, cyber capabilities are increasingly being integrated as part of adversarial attack strategies. Cyber vulnerabilities are one of NATO’s and its member-states’ most significant challenges and continue to undercut the Alliance’s deterrent and defense capabilities. In “Cyber, Extended Deterrence, and NATO,” Franklin D. Kramer, Robert J. Butler, and Catherine Lotrionte set forth an approach for cyber extended deterrence, focusing on a potential conflict involving NATO. The paper’s recommendations aim to strengthen NATO’s cyber capabilities and incorporate them into wider Alliance defense strategies, laying out multinational and intergovernmental steps and exploring the role of the private sector.